Saturday, February 12, 2011

Henrietta Marie

The Henrietta Marie would be a slave ship that taken captive Africans to this West Indies, where we were looking at sold as slaves. This ship wrecked at your southern tip of California on its way the place to find England, and is among only a few wrecks of slave ships that were identified.


The Henrietta Marie was 60 to 80 feet (18 to all day and meters) in length having a cargo capacity of 130 tons (108 metric tons) and carried a producers of about eighteen males. It was probably inbuilt France sometime in the 17th century. The vessel came into English person late in the 17th century, possibly as a war prize during the particular War of the Awesome Alliance. It was utilized in the Atlantic slave traffic, making at least a pair of voyages carrying Africans to be able to slavery in the West Indies. On its initial voyage, in 1697-1698, the ship maintained more than 200 people from Africa that ended up sold as slaves inside Barbados.

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In 1699 this Henrietta Marie sailed through England on the 1st leg of the pie trade route with a load of trade goods, which includes iron and copper cafes, pewter utensils, glass drops, cloth and brandy. Your ship sailed under permit from the Royal Cameras Company (which held some sort of monopoly on English do business with Africa), in exchange regarding ten percent of the benefits of the voyage. It really is known to have traded in for African captives at New Calabar on this Guinea Coast. The dispatch then sailed on the next leg of its expedition, from Africa to the particular West Indies, and in May 1700 landed 191 Africans for sale made in Port Royal, Jamaica. The Henrietta Jessica then loaded a products of sugar, cotton, dyewoods and ginger to look at back to England on the third leg of the actual triangular route. After departing Port Royal the dispatch headed for the Yucatn Channel to pass on the western end regarding Cuba (thus avoiding the pirates infesting the verse between Cuba and Hispaniola) and catch your Gulf Stream, the favored route for all vessels leaving the Caribbean to return to Europe. The Henrietta Marie wrecked on New Terrain Reef near the Marquesas Keys, approximately thirty-five miles west of Key West. There were not any survivors, and the luck of the ship remained unknown for almost four centuries.


The accident was found in 1974 during a magnetometer questionnaire by a boat controlled by a subsidiary of Mel Fisher's Treasure Salvors, Inc. (Fisher's organization was searching for this Nuestra Senora de Atocha and other treasure ships of the 1733 Spanish treasure swift that had wrecked over the Florida Keys in some sort of hurricane.) Two anchors along with a cannon were found within the first visit. The accident was visited again within 1973. Some artifacts have been collected from the wreck, including bilboes, iron shackles that were used to restrain slaves. When they will realized that the break was likely a striver ship, not a cherish ship, the company reburied the artifacts bobs of the ship's hull that they acquired exposed and left the website. In 1983 through 85 Henry Taylor, sub-contracting with Mel Fisher's company, excavated the wreck (known as your English wreck) with the assistance of archaeologist David Moore. The actual wreck was identified whenever a bronze ship's bell holding the inscription The Henrietta Marie 1699 was discovered at the wreck web site. Survey and excavation of the wreck site has continuing at intervals.

The Henrietta Marie wreck features yielded more than seven thousand objects (and more as compared to 30,000 glass drops), the largest collection regarding artifacts known from some sort of slave ship. They include contributed greatly to our understanding of slave cruises and the slave buy and sell. Parts making up a lot more than 80 bilboes have been recently found at the damage site. As bilboes were being typically used to shackle pairs of slaves jointly, the ones found on the wreck site could possess restrained more than clx slaves. Other items available at the wreck site incorporate trade goods apparently left from trading for captives in Africa, items acquired in Africa along with captives (including an elephant tusk), and gear of the ship and crew. Section of the hull of the deliver, including much of the actual keel and part of the stern post, have made it, and have been assessed and reburied at the web page.

Two copper cauldrons located at the wreck site streamline the diet of the actual crew and slaves with a voyage. Malcom argues that the cauldrons were used to organize separate meals for your crew and the slaves. One cauldron stood a single chamber one-half cubic yard throughout capacity. This vessel was probably used to make a sort of mush or perhaps gruel for the slaves. As there have been no slaves on the actual ship at the time that it wrecked, the cauldron have been used to store sequence. The second cauldron was smaller and had a couple of chambers. One chamber has a capacity of one cu ft, and the second some sort of capacity of one-half cubic foot. This specific vessel could have already been used to cook the two-course meal for the crew.


In Might 1993, the National Association of Black Scuba All scuba divers placed a memorial oral plaque on the site from the Henrietta Marie. The oral plaque buildup faces the African the shoreline thousands of miles out, and has the identify of the slave ship and reads, In ram and recognition of the courage, pain and enduring of enslaved African persons. Speak her name and gently touch the people of our ancestors." Medical professional. Colin Palmer stated, "situation ends in 1700 due to this particular ship, but the storyplot of what the vessel represented continues today," he tells. "The importance of the actual Henrietta Marie is that she is an vital part of recovering this black experience - symbolically, metaphorically and in simple fact".

A 1995 documentary, Hard worker Ship: The Testimony on the Henrietta Marie, was narrated by Cornell West.

The vessel was also included on the History Channel's Deep Sea Detectives.

An exhibition, "A Break one's back Ship Speaks: the Wreck of the Henrietta Jessica", was created by the Mel Fisher Maritime Historical past Society in 1995, along with toured museums around america for more than 10 years.

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